Born On This Day:
- Roman Emperor Hadrian, AD 76
- William Congreve, 1670
- Frederick II (the Great), 1712
- Pierre Augustin Beaumarchais, 1732
- King Gustav III Sweden, 1746
- Edith Wharton, 1862
- Estelle Winwood, 1883
- Vicki Baum, 1888
- Robert Motherwell, 1915
- Mark Goodson, 1915
- Ernest Borgnine, 1917
- Oral Roberts, 1918
- Maria Tallchief, 1925
- Desmond Morris, 1928
- Neil Diamond, 1944
- Michael Ontkean, 1946
- Warren Zevon, 1947
- John Belushi, 1949
- Yakov Smirnoff, 1951
- Jools Holland, 1958
- Nastassja Kinski, 1960
- Mary Lou Retton, 1968
Died On This Day:
- Emperor Caligula assassinated, AD 41
- Pope Stephen III, AD 772
- Pope Stephen IV, AD 817
- Lord Randolph Churchill, 1895
- Winston Churchill, 1965
- Saint John Ervine, 1971
- George Cukor, 1983
- L. Ron Hubbard, 1986
- Gordon MacRae, 1991
- Thurgood Marshall, 1993
- Craig Claiborne, 2000
- Marvin Minsky, 2016
- AD 41 - Claudius I, becomes Roman Emperor following murder of Caligula.
- 1236 - Henry III marries Eleanor of Provence.
- 1536 - King Henry VIII knocked from horse at full gallop by opponent and was unconscious for two hours; historians claim this made him fat and murderous and caused Anne Boleyn's miscarriage.
- 1616 - Cape Horn first rounded by Dutch navigator Willem Schouten; named Cape after his home town Hoorn.
- 1848 - Gold discovered at Sutter's Mill, CA by James Wilson Marshall starting Calif. gold rush.
- 1883 - Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association acquires US rights to bottle and sell Budweiser style beer.
- 1908 - First Boy Scout Troup founded in Britain by Lord Robert Baden-Powell.
- 1922 - Patent received by Christian K. Nelson of Onawa, Iowa for the Eskimo Pie ice cream bar.
- 1924 - St. Petersburg in Russia renamed Leningrad.
- 1935 - First beer in cans goes on sale in Richmond, VA.
- 1937 - 'Black Sunday' in Ohio-Mississippi Valley as flood causes martial law, national emergency.
- 1946 - U.S. Army Signal Corps first bounce radar off the moon.
- 1972 - Japanese soldier, Shoichi Yokoi, discovered on Guam jungle believing WWII was still being fought.
- 1984 - Macintosh computer launched by Steven Jobs at Apple Computer's annual stockholder's meeting.
- 1986 - First photographs from space of Planet Uranus taken from Voyager 2 reveals 15 moons 11 rings.
- 1999 - First successful hand transplant performed in Louisville KY on Matthew David Scott from NJ.
Feast Day of Saint:
- Economic Liberation Day celebrated in Togo
- YÜAN TAN. Chinese New Year's Day. Based on lunar calendar - starts sunset on day of 2nd New Moon.
- CHINESE LANTERN FESTIVAL 15th day of first month of lunar calendar marks end of Chinese New Year.
- TU BI-SHEBAT (Judaism) New Year for Trees, celebrated on 15th of lunar month Shebat.
- MARTIN LUTHER KING DAY 3rd Monday in January
- ADULTS DAY in Japan - second Monday in January - 'Seijin no hi'
- SNOW FESTIVAL - Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan
- GANESHA CHATURTHI, Hindu Festival of the Elephant God
- VASANT PANCHAMI, Hindu Festival of Spring and of Saraswati, Goddess of Learning (end of January)
- PONGAL AND MAKARA SANKRANTI, mid-January, Harvest festival celebrated in Southern India and Singapore
- LAILAT AL MIRAJ Muslim Festival celebrating ascent of Muhammad into Heaven
- JAPANESE NEW YEAR - 3 day festival
- LOHRI, the Hindu Bonfire Festival, celebrated early January
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