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Events of the Decade:

Cholera epidemic spreads in Europe and later breaks out in U.S.
Britain claims Falkland Islands
Civil war in Spain
British houses of Parliament destroyed by fire
Texas independent of Mexico
Chile fights Peru-Bolivia Federation
Natal Republic founded
Rebellions in Canada
July revolution breaks out in Paris
Anglo-Afghan Wars series
Anglo-Chinese Opium War; Brits take Hong Kong
Turkey vs. Syria
Boers defeat Zulus in Natal
Charles Darwin begins explorations in Beagle
Belgium and Luxembourg independent as is Guatemala,
Greece, Ecuador
Population in millions: Great Britain 12.2, Ireland 7.7, United States, 12.8
Immigrants to U.S. 1831-1840:
British 75,810
Irish 207,381
Germans 15,000

Who's 'In':

President Andrew Jackson
President Martin Van Buren
King William IV of England
Queen Victoria of England
King Louis Phillipe of France
British PM's: Charles Grey, William Lamb, Robert Peel
King Ferdinand II of Naples
J.J. Audubon
Emperors Francis II and Ferdinand I of Austria
Chancellor Klemens Wenzel von Metternich of Austria
Jenny Lind, the Swedish Nightingale
Christian VIII of Denmark
Charles Darwin
President Sam Houston of Texas
Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg
King Henri V of France
Maria II of Portugal
Queen Isabella II of Spain
Nicholas I of Russia

Who Died:

800,000 in severe droughts in northwest India
900,000 in outbreaks of cholera in Europe
187 Americans at the Alamo
50 whites in Nat Turner's anti-slavery rebellion
The Spanish Inquisition
King George IV
King William IV
Betsy Ross, 84
Francis I of Naples
Frederick VI of Denmark
Simon Bolívar, 47
Sarah Siddons, 75
James Monroe, 73
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, 61
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 82
Sir Walter Scott, 61
King Ferdinand VII of Spain
Edmund Kean, 45
Peter IV of Portugal
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 61
Charles Lamb, 59
Vincenzo Bellini, 33
André Ampère, 61
Alexander Pushkin, 37
John Constable, 59
Osceola leader of Seminoles
Gustavus IV Sweden
Davy Crockett
Jim Bowie
Prince Talleyrand
James Mill
Emperor Napoleon II
William Wilberforce
Aaron Burr
Peter IV Portugal
Black Hawk
Nat Turner
Pope Pius VIII
3,000 Zulus at Blood River, Natal
Monopoly of East India Company in China
Slavery in the British Empire
50 Whites and 120 Blacks in Nat Turner's VA rebellion
Saux and Fox Indians decimated

Bad Guys:

General Santa Ana

What's 'In':

Patents granted: The bellows, reaping machine, Colt's revolving cylinder for guns, fireproof safe, diving suit, mechanical reaper, ice-making machine, the hand wrench, the "bed spring," cotton seed planter, corn planter, phosphorous friction matches, the screw propeller, mechanical lawn mower, sandpaper
Jim Bowie's Bowie Knife
Mr. Steinheil's first electric clock
Commercially produced valentines
Soda Fountains
Thomas Davenport's electric motor
Mr. Macintosh's galoshes and raincoats
Mr. Chubb's burglarproof safe
Mr. Gurney's bus (18-seats, six wheels, driven by steam)
Graham crackers
Birth registration in Britain
The modern bicycle invented in Scotland
Samuel F.B. Morse's telegraph and his Morse Code
John Deere's steel-bladed plow
A woman's college at Mount Holyoke
Hansom cabs in London
Horse-drawn trolleys in New York
Charity bazaars in England
The airtight diving suit
Pistols made by Samuel Colt
Procter & Gamble Co in Ohio makes candles and soap (in uniform shape bars)
The Polka - first danced in Prague
First avocados planted in California
Arc de Triomphe in Paris
Isaac Pitman's shorthand
Dancing the "Lancers"
Photography! (Daguerreotype)
Baltimore and Ohio railroad
Republic of Texas
City of Toronto
French Foreign Legion
Country of Siam
Cunard cruise ships
First Democratic convention
Astor Hotel, later Waldorf-Astoria
Buckingham Palace
New London Bridge
Melbourne, Australia and its University
Horse-drawn streetcar in NY New York City
Early gas stove
First photograph of the moon


Edmund Kean's last performance; collapses onstage at Covent Garden playing "Othello."
Goethe's "Faust" Part II
Victor Hugo's plays "Le Roi
S"amuse," "Hernani," "Angelo"
Alexander Pushkin's "Little Tragedies"
Alexandre Dumas père's plays "Napoléon Bonaparte," "Antony," "La Tour de Nesle"
Georg Büchner's "Danton's Tod," "Leonace und Lena"
Young Phineas T. Barnum begins his show promotions: presents 160 year-old woman claiming to be George Washington's nurse
"The Gladiator" by Dr. Robert Montgomery Bird gets 1,000 performance run in New York
First flea circus in New York
Phenakistoscope, Fantiscope and Stroboscope, early moving picture devices go on sale


Development of the valved trombone, keys for flutes, and bass tuba
Hector Berlioz "Symphonie Fantastique," "Harold in Italy," "Requiem" and "Romeo and Juliet Symphony. His opera "Benvenuto Cellini"
Hit songs: My Country "Tis of Thee to the tune of "America," She Wore a Yellow Ribbon
Bellini's operas "La Sonnambula" and
Chopin Mazurkas, 12 Études, 24 Preludes
Donizetti's operas "L"Elisir d"Amore," "Lucia di Lammermoor," "Lucrezia Borgia"
Mendelssohn's 4th Symphony ("Italian")
Schumann's "Carnaval," "Novelletten,"


G.P. Putnam's Sons founded
"Arthur Gordon Pym" by Edgar Allen Poe
Victor Hugo's "Hernani," "Notre-Dame de Paris," "Ruy Blas"
Alfred Lord Tennyson "Poems Chiefly Lyrical," "The Lotus-Eaters," "The Lady of Shalott"
Longfellow's "Voices of the Night"
Théophile Gautier's "Poesies," "Albertus," "La Comédie de la mort"
Balzac's "Peau de Chagrin,"
"Le Chef-doevre inconnu," "Contes Drôlatiques," "La Recherche de l"Absolu," "Le Père Goriot,"
Washington Irving "A Town on the Prairie," "The Legend of the Alhambra"
Alexander Pushkin "Eugene Onegin," "The Queen of Spades"
George Sand "Lélia,"
"Pauline" by Robert Browning
"The Government Inspector" by Nicolai Gogol
Hans Christian Andersen's "Tales Told for Children" including "The Princess and the Pea"
Robert Southey's "Goldilocks and the Three Bears"
Georg Büchner's "Danton's Death"
Charles Dickens "Sketches by Boz," "Pickwick Papers," "Oliver Twist," "Nicholas Nickleby,"
William Wordsworth "Yarrow Revisited."
Thackeray's "The Yellowplush Papers"
Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Twice-Told tales"


Delacroix's paintings "The Barricade," "Liberty Leading the People," "Oriental Lion Hunt," "28 July, 1830"
National Gallery of London opens
Barbizon School of artists inc. Jean Millet & Pierre Rousseau first exhibit
Corot's "Chartres Cathedral," "Hagar in the Desert," " Diana Surprised by Actaeon"
Constable's "Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs," "The Valley Farm,"
Honoré Daumier's political caricatures for La Silhouette and Le Charivari
"Execution of Lady Jane Grey" by Paul Delaroche

Fashion & Beauty:

Early Victorian Era begins in fashion
Brooks Brothers founded

Padded chest in jackets
Tailcoats with waistcoats
Pointed stiff collars
Frock coats with velvet collars
Striped waistcoats and patterned cravats

Shorter skirts
Puffed sleeves
Huge hats with flowers and ribbons
Tall coiffures
Corsets with more rounded curves
Close-fitting bodices
Elaborate diamond jewelry
Short boots
Striped aprons


1st penny newspaper in America, the New York Sun
The Times of India
New York Herald founded, first to employ European correspondents
Woman's magazines appear
Juvenile Miscellany Magazine which publishes a poem called "Mary Had a Little Lamb"
The Liberator, abolitionist magazine in Boston
First newsboys in America


First U.S. bank robbery-City Bank of N.Y. robbed of $245,000
Financial and economic panic in America caused by inflated land values & wildcat banking
First private banks in South Africa
Gold prices fixed by Congress


"Book of Mormon," sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, published in March in Palmyra, New York.
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints established at Fayette, NY; First Mormon temple dedicated in Kirtland, Ohio.
Roman Catholicism out as State religion in France
Pope Gregory XVI


Faraday and Joseph Henry independently discover electro-magnetic induction
Discovery of nucleus in plant cells by Robert Brown
Braille perfects his reading system for the blind
Acetylene first made
Sodium carbonate
Samuel Morse's electric telegraph first demonstrated
Science of biochemistry founded when Liebig proves animal respiration
Goodyear's vulcanization of rubber
Darwin's "Voyage of the Beagle"
Discovery of codeine
Charles Babbage's principle of the "analytical engine" computer of the future
Pepsin found to be digestive in stomach
The word "metabolism" first used
Rare woman scientist Mary Somerville's "Mechanism of the Heavens" and "On the Connexion of the Physical Sciences"

New Slang Words:

Art for Art's sake (L"Art pour l"Art) coined by Victor Cousin
Does your mother know
you"re out?
Pile on the agony
Between you, me and the gatepost
Tickle one's fancy
To eat one's hat
Heads I win, tails you lose
The almighty dollar
The great unwashed masses
To keep one's nose to the grindstone
To make oneself scarce
To bark up the wrong tree
To make or break something
The man in the street
The march of time
Murder most foul
Something is a no go
That would be telling (secrets)
Well, I declare
Something is "not bad"
To bark up the wrong tree
To black-ball someone
Someone is a wet blanket
What the blazes?
To blow it
To pick someone's brains
Something is child's play


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