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Events of the Decade:

Missouri Compromise -enters union as slave State but rest of Louisiana purchase slavery-free.
Greek war of independence - British/French/Russian fleet over Egyptian/Turkish fleet
Mexico, Peru, Panama, Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia and Central American republics Independence.
Sierra Leone, Gambia & Gold Coast taken over by British forming British West Africa
Free trade in Britain
Turks massacre Greeks
Monroe Doctrine-foreign powers butt out of US politics
Franco-Spanish War
Anglo-Burmese War
Bolivia & Uruguay independent
Russo-Persian War
Civil War in Portugal
Russo-Turkish War
Fire wipes out Canton, China
Independence of Serbia and Danubian Provinces
Stats in 1821: Population in millions: France 30.4, Great Britain 20.8, Italian States 18, Austria 12, America 9.6, Germany and Republics 26.1
Britons emigrating to US 1821-30: 27,489. Irish to US 54,338.

Who's 'In':

President James Monroe
President Andrew Jackson
King George IV of England
Child pianist Franz Liszt the sensation of Europe
British PM's: George Canning, Frederick John Robinson, Arthur Wellesley
Simon Bolivar of Peru
John Quincy Adams
Francis I of Naples
Emperor Francis II of Austria
Chancellor Klemens Wenzel von Metternich of Austria
Czar Nicholas I
Dom Miguel of Portugal
Explorers Alexander Gordon Laing, Hugh Clapperton
King Louis XVIII of France
King Charles X of France
Siamese Twins Chang and Eng
King Ferdinand VII of Spain and his fourth wife Maria Christina of Naples
Emperor Alexander I of Russia
Emperor Nicholas I of Russia

Who Died:

King George III
John Keats, 26
Napoleon I, 52
Percy Bysshe Shelley, 29
William Herschel, 88
Lord Byron, 36
Czar Alexander I, 47
Alessandro Volta, 82
Thomas Jefferson, 73
Jacques Louis David, 77
Ludwig van Beethoven, 56
William Blake, 69
Francisco Goya, 81
Franz Schubert, 31
Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton
Eli Whitney
Pope Leo XII, 69
DeWitt Clinton
Thomas Coutts
King John VI Portugal
Antonio Salieri, 75
John Jay, 84
John Adams
Queen Caroline of Brunswick
Pope Pius VII
Louis XVIII of France
Jean Antoine Houdon, 68
Daniel Boone
Henri Christophe of Haiti
King Maximilian I Bavaria
The Inquisition in Spain
The death penalty for over 100 crimes in England
Slavery in Mexico
The practice of immolating a widow with her dead husband in India

Bad Guys:

King Ferdinand VII of Spain
Simon Bolívar
Cato Street murder conspirators against British cabinet ministers

What's 'In':

A high school established in Boston
London Zoo founded
Cooperative stores in America
Gas street lighting in Boston
Mr. Macintosh's waterproof fabric
Lenses for lighthouses that cast light out to sea
The tomato as a food
Mechanical pencils
Louis Braille's writing system for the blind
Rugby Football
Poem: "The Night Before Christmas"
Guano used as fertilizer in Europe
Friction matches ("lucifers")
Horse-drawn omnibus in London
Athenaeum Club and the Royal Thames Yacht Club in London
Juvenile Delinquents 1st reformatory opens.
The coffee mill.
America's first nursery school
First Oxford vs. Cambridge boat race.
W.A. Burt's typewriter.
A rhinoceros at Peale's Museum in New York.
Discovery of the Great Salt Lake
Steam railroads
Scotland Yard
America's first modern hotel opens with bathrooms-the Tremont House, Boston.
Erie Canal opens; links Great Lakes with New York
Antarctica discovered
First social fraternity -Kappa Alpha
R.S.P.C.A. in London


Gas theatre lighting in New York
Alexander Pushkin's play "Boris Gudunov"
Edmund Kean plays Richard II in New York
First ballet in U.S. - "The Deserter"
Alexandre Dumas père's play "Henri III et sa cour"
Victor Hugo's plays "Cromwell" and "Marion Delorme"


Beethoven goes deaf
Child protégé Franz Liszt on the piano
Chopin's debut in Vienna
Big decade for musical instrument improvements: development of alto clarinet, keyed bugle, double-pedal harp, violin chinrest, piston valves for brass, harmonica, keyed accordion, iron-cast piano frame, and valved cornet; also invention of the concertina
Franz Schubert's "Wanderer," Symphony No. 8 (Unfinished),"Rosamunde,"
"Death and the Maiden" quartet, "Winterreise," C Major Symphony ("Great"), Klavierstücke
Meyerbeer's opera "Margherita d"Anjou"
Beethoven's "Mass in D (123)," 9th (Choral) Symphony
Royal Academy of Music founded in London
Felix Mendelssohn's music for "A Midsummer Night's Dream"
Bellini's opera "Il Pirata"
Rossini's operas "Le Comte Ory," and "William Tell" at the Paris Opera
Mouth organ invented by F. Damian
Concertina invented by Charles Wheatstone
Hit song: Home, Sweet Home!


Hardbound books with cloth casings
First book clubs "subscription" book selling
Noah Webster's Dictionary
The Diaries of Samuel Pepys
Audubon's "Birds of North America"
Poem "Visit from St. Nicholas" (The Night Before Christmas)
"Confessions of an English Opium Eater" by Thomas De Quincey
Washington Irving's "Rip Van Winkle," "Legend of Sleepy Hollow," "Bracebridge Hall" "The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent" and a huge bestseller, "The Conquest of Granada"
Keat's "The Eve of St. Agnes," "Ode to a Nightingale"
Alexander Pushkin "Russlan & Ludmila," "Eugene Onegin," "Poltava"
Shelley's "Prometheus Unbound," "Ode to the West Wind." "Adonais"
Sir Walter Scott "Ivanhoe."
"Kenilworth," "Redgauntlet," "Woodstock," "The Talisman"
James Fenimore Cooper's "The Spy," "The Pioneers," "The Last of the Mohicans" "The Prairie,"
Heinrich Heine "Poems," "Buch der Lieder"
Edgar Allen Poe's "Tamerlane"
Balzac's "Les Chouans," "La Comédie Humaine"
Victor Hugo's "Les Orientales," "Odes"
Benjamin Disraeli's "Vivian Grey"
Alfred Lord Tennyson's "Timbuctoo"


Venus de Milo discovered
William Blake's "Illustrations to the book of Job"
Goya's "The Milkmaids of Bordeaux"
John Constable's paintings
"Harwich Lighthouse," "Hay Wain," "The Cornfield," "Dedham Vale," "Leaping Horse"
Delacroix paints "Les Massacres de Chios," "Dante and Virgil in Hell" and "Dante and Virgil Crossing the Styx" and "Sardanapalus"
National Art Gallery in London opens
J.M.W. Turner's painting "Ulysses Deriding Polyphenus,"
Samuel Morse "Portrait of Lafayette"
Gilbert Stuart's portrait of George Washington

Fashion & Beauty:

La Belle Jardinière in Paris, manufacturer of ready-to- wear women's and children's clothing
Cloth covered buttons
Large combs
Muslin yokes with ruffles
Hair coiled up on the back of the head
More sheer materials become popular
Ruffles on necklines
Silk bonnets
Cravats (especially in black)
Cloaks with capes
Trousers fastened under the foot


Manchester Guardian founded
Sunday Times of London
The Spectator first issued
Evening Standard of London
New York Enquirer's James Gordon Bennett is 1st Washington News correspondent.
Le Figaro founded in France
(freedom of the press is back in again); Satirical magazine La Silhouette founded
Le Globe in Paris
Athenaeum weekly in London
Anti-slavery magazine "The Emancipator"
American Mechanics" Magazine
First Black newspaper in New York - Freedom's Journal


U.S. Land Law: Minimum price $1.25 per acre. No credit to be given
New York Stock Exchange leads nation
Farmer's Fire Insurance and Loan Co., N.Y.


Mormon founder Joseph Smith's visions occur
Catholics gain rights in Britain so long as Pope has no power
Pope Leo XII
Pope Pius VIII
Jesuits thrown out of Rome
First reform Jewish congregation in Charleston, SC
National organization of Unitarian Churches in U.S.


Ampère's laws of electro-dynamic action and his book "Electrodynamics"
Faraday's discovery of electro-magnetic rotation and liquefaction of chlorine. He isolates benzene
Seebeck's discovery of thermo-electricity
Discovery that sperm is required to produce fertilization
J.F. Herschel invents device to measure sun's rays
Fresnel experiments in polarized light
Electromagnet invented in England
British medical journal "Lancet" founded
Georg Simon Ohm's experiments in electrical conduction in solids and his Ohm's Law defining electrical resistance
First successful hysterectomy and tracheotomy
Early attempts to reproduce sound
Discovery of bromine
Bright's Disease described

New Slang Words:

The expression "nursery rhyme"
To air one's vocabulary (talk for sake of it)
All hope abandon ye who enter here
To the crack of doom
To go in one ear and out the other
Lock, stock and barrel
As clear as mud
Put that in your pipe and smoke it
One's bread-and butter
My eye!! (exclamation)
Something is selling like hot-cakes


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An introduction to History by Decades by Larry Belling. More...




















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