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Events of the Decade:

Charter of Pennsylvania granted to William Penn. He goes; founds Philly; does peace deal with Indians
LaSalle claims Louisiana and lower Mississippi River territory for France; French colonialism begins; Madagascar conquered.
Dutch settlers arrive in Capetown
Glorious Revolution in England; new Bill of Rights under William and Mary
War of the Grand Alliance begins; France vs. Holy Roman Empire
Treaty of Radzin ends 5-year war between Turks and allies Russia and Poland
Spain vs. France
New British Crown Colony: Bermudas
Pueblo Indians drive Spanish out of Santa Fe, NM and destroy Spanish churches
French court moves to Versailles
Austrians and Poles defeat Ottoman Turks at Kahlenberg
Germantown, Pennsylvania founded by Mennonites from Krefeld, Germany
Venetians vs. Turks; Acropolis attacked; Parthenon destroyed

Who's 'In':

Edmund Halley
French King Louis XIV and his new wife Mme. de Maintenon
William Penn
Charles Le Brun, French tastemaker
King James II of England
(in 1689) King William III (of Orange) and Mary II
Czar Feodor III
Czar Ivan V of Russia
Czar Peter I (the Great) of Russia
Suleiman III of Turkey
Sir Isaac Newton
Tsunayoshi, Shogun of Japan
Maximilian II Emanuel of Bavaria
King Charles XI of Sweden
Emeric Tökölyi King of Hungary
King Jan Sobieski of Poland
Charles, Duke of Lorraine
King Charles II of Spain
King Christian V of Denmark

Who Died:

The Dodo bird extinct
Wild Boars extinct in Britain
French settlers at Lachine near Montreal massacred by Iroquois
Charles II, King of England
Jean Picard, 62
Witchcraft executions in England
Queen Christina of Sweden
Queen Marie Theresa of France
Czar Theodore III
Thomas Otway, 33
Samuel Butler, 68
Pedro Calderón, 81
François de La Rochefoucauld, 67
William Lilly
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Pope Innocent X
Pope Innocent XI
John Bunyan
Esteban Murillo, 65
John Alden
Pierre Corneille, 78
Jean Baptiste Lully, Paris Opera director
Nell Gwyn, 36
Sir Isaac Walton
Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 82
Alfonso VI, King of Portugal
Izaak Walton, 93
Murillo, 65
Colonel Thomas Blood
Samuel Butler
Daniel Elsevier
Athanasius Kircher

Bad Guys:

What's 'In':

Christmas celebrations in America are finally legal
Ashmoleon Museum at Oxford - the first for natural history
Haiku poetry in Japan
Grandfather clocks in America
Leavened bread developed in Egypt
Pressure cookers (called steam digesters)
The Palace of Versailles, new home of the French Court
First secondary school in U.S. in Pennsylvania
The practice of ecology under William Penn in U.S.
Bagels invented in Vienna
Socket bayonet on muskets in France
Banister-back chairs in New England
Bill of Rights in England adopted by British Parliament
Walnut stretcher tables in Pennsylvania
Coffee Houses in Vienna
Edward Lloyd's coffee shop in London where shipping insurance was bought and sold
Plate glass
A trade fair in Holland


Comédie-Française established in Paris
Jean Racine's "Esther"
Thomas Otway's "The Orphan," and Restoration tragedy "Venice Preserv'd"
"Joruri" puppet theatre in Japan
First theatre in Sweden


Opera "Armide et Renaud" by Lully
Henry Purcell's operas "Dido and Aeneas" and "Welcome to All the Pleasures"
Benedetto Ferrari's oratoria "Il Sansone"
Alessandro Scarlatti (father of Domenico) writes opera "L'Aldimiro"

The cymbal used in percussion section of orchestras for the first time


John Dryden's "Achitophel," "Religio Laici," "Absalom and Macflecknoe," "Essay of Dramatic Poesy," "A Song for St. Cecilia's Day," "The Hind and the Panther"
Andrew Marvell's "The Definition of Love"
John Bunyan's "The Pilgrim's Progress" Part II
William Winstanley "Lives of the English Poets"
John Locke's "First (and second) Treatise on Civil Government"
Joseph de la Vega's "Confusion de Confusiones"


Murillo's "Two Trinities"
French Academy publishes "Rules for Painting"
Kneller "The Chinese Convent"
Hobbema's "Avenue at Middleharnis"
Luca Geordano's "Perseus turning Phineas and followers to Stone"
Pierre Puget's bronze sculpture of Hercules struggling in the burning tunic
Simon Pietesz's portrait of Charles II's mistress Nell Gwyn
Giovanni Battista Foggini's sculptures "The Mass of Saint Andrea Corsini" and bust of Cosimo II de' Medici

Fashion & Beauty:

Long shawls over caps
Ruffled lace sleeves
Bows at the elbow
Broad "Military" sashes
Tasseled walking canes
Ribbons and combs


First literary review in Rotterdam


First cheques in England
First Canadian paper money
Chinese ports open for foreign trade
Insurance underwriters form alliance at Lloyd's Coffee House, London


Mass exodus of Protestants (Huguenots) from France follows Edict of Nantes; 58,000 forced to convert
Toleration Act in England grants Huguenots religious freedom and Baptists too
Religious refugees from France settle Capetown
Pope Alexander VIII
Jews thrown out of Bordeaux
King Louis XIV expells all Jews from French possessions in America
Jews not allowed to settle in Stockholm thanks to Charles II
Roman Catholics allowed in English Army (by James II, last Catholic King of England)
First Mennonites arrive in Philadelphia
Church of England organized in New England
King Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes and outlaws Protestantism; France is 100% Catholic
Huguenots (French Protestants) emigrate to South Africa and make wine


Isaac Newton's laws of motion (universal gravitation) in important scientific work "Principia Mathamatica"
Newton further develops new math: calculus
Newton states that time is absolute - a view held until Einstein
Bacteria and muscle fiber first observed by van Leeuwenhoek in his early microscope
Nehemiah Grew explains how seeds are fertilized by pollen
Edmund Halley sees his namesake comet
Halley's meteorological map
Physician Sir Hans Sloane first makes milk chocolate from a cacao bean he picked up in Jamaica

New Slang Words:

To rack one's brain
Catch the gold ring


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An introduction to History by Decades by Larry Belling. More...




















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