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Events of the Decade:

King Philip's War - Indian Wars in New England
Hungarians rebel against Hapsburgs
La Salle explores Mississippi River; Marquette explores Missouri and joins Joliet in reaching headwaters of Mississippi
Great Boston Fire
France and England at war with Holland; settled by Peace of Nijmegen
Niagara Falls discovered
Culpeper's Rebellion; Carolina colony fights British taxation
Russo-Turkish Wars begin; off and on again bet. Russia and Ottoman Empire
Sweden vs. Denmark and Sweden vs. Russia

Who's 'In':

King Louis XIV of France
King Frederick III and King Christian V of Denmark
King Charles II of England
Pirate Sir Henry Morgan, deputy governor of Jamaica
William Penn
Sir Christopher Wren, architect
Cotton Mather
Self-crowned Sivaji, King of India
Jan III Sobieski, first King of Poland
Explorers Jacques Marquette, Louis Jolliet, Robert Cavalier de La Salle
Czar Feodor III of Russia succeeds Czar Aleksei
Scientist Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
Philosopher Benedict Spinoza
King Charles II of Spain
King Charles XI of Sweden
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
King Michael Korybut Wisniowiecki of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Who Died:

400,000 more Italians in Bubonic plague
The ostrich-like moa bird of New Zealand extinct
Frederick III of Denmark
Don Juan of Spain
Spinoza, 45
Count Peter Zrinski
Francesco Cavalli, 74
John Milton, 66
King Michael of Poland
Jan Vermeer, 43
Jan Steen , 53
Frederick III of Denmark
Thomas Hobbes, 91
Peter Stuyvesant

Bad Guys:

Titus Oates, inventor of the Popish Plot
Thomas (Captain) Blood - steals Crown Jewels from Tower of London

What's 'In':

Paris as center of European culture
Ballet in Germany
Chrysanthemums exported from Japan to Holland
Rice exported to South Carolina from Madagascar (but nobody knew how to husk it for food)
Minute hands on pocket watches
Hudson Bay Company in Canada
Postal service from Boston to New York
First professional ballet dancers in Paris
Greenwich Observatory
Coffee Houses in America
Denis Papin's pressure cooker in England
Tobacco consumption in America, especially by the Dutch
Minute hands on clocks
Flexible fire-fighting hose
The universal joint of Robert Hooker
Huckleberry pies in America
Naval training academies in France
Soccer encouraged by Charles II
Gunpowder as a tool for road-building
Ice cream in Paris


2nd Drury Lane Theatre in London; rebuilding of Theatre Royal, Drury Lane after fire
Italian Commedia dell "arte troupes are the rage
Pierre Corneille's "Pulchérie," "Ariane," "Tite et Bérénice," "Le Comte d"Essex"
Molière's "Les Femmes Savantes," "Le Malade Imaginaire" "Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme" "Les Fourberies de Scapin"
William Wycherley's "Love in a Wood, or St. James" Park," "The Gentleman Dancing Master," "The Country Wife," "The Plain Dealer"
John Dryden's plays "the Conquest of Granada," "Aurengzebe," "All for Love," "Marriage à la Mode"
Jean Racine's "Bajazet," "Mithridate," "Phèdre," "Iphigénie en Aulide" "Bérénice" "Bajazet"


The banjo invented
Bagpipes first played in Scotland
Stradivari expands from violins to cellos
Sadler Wells Theatre in London starts musical entertainment
"Pomone" by Robert Cambert, first French opera, opens at new Académie Royal de Musique
Johann Theile's "Adam und Eva" first comic opera with spoken dialogue
Lully's operas "Alceste" and "Isis," and "Bellérophon"
First German Opera House in Hamburg
First opera - Matthew Locke's "Psyche"
Scarlatti's first opera "Gli Equivoci nell" Amore"


"Pilgrim's Progress" by John Bunyan
"Narrative of the Trouble with the Indians in New England" by William Hubbard
"A Guide to Heaven" by Samuel Hardy
John Milton's "Paradise Regained," "Samson Agonistes"
John Dryden's "All for Love"
Marie Madeleine de La Fayette's novel "La Princesse de Clèves"
John Ray's book of aphorisms ("Blood is thicker than water," haste makes waste")


Jan Vermeer's "Painter in his Studio," "The Pearl Necklace," "Young Woman Standing at a Virginal," "Allegory of Faith"
Murillo's "The Pie-Eater," "Soult Immaculate Conception," "St. Francis," "Madonna Purissima" "Christ healing a paralytic at the Pool of Bethesda"
Jan Steen's "Serenade"
Adriaen van Ostade "The Violin Player"

Fashion & Beauty:

Silk (forbidden in some places)
Periwigs (banned in MA & CT)
Cravats, tassled hankies
Shoes with high tongues and broad bows
Corkscrew curls in hair
Large cuffs
Satin gowns
Low, wide décolletage
Pearls at neck and wrist
Wide necklines
Narrow sashes


First feature magazine with gossip and poems published in France, "Mercure Galant"


Louis XIV loans Charles II of England half million crowns


Pope Clement X
Pope Innocent XI
35 innocent Roman Catholics executed for treason in the Popish Plot; Catholics cannot sit in either House in England
First bible in Arabic printed in Rome
Legal protection of Sabbath in England
First Baptist Church in America in Newport, RI
Anti-Catholic laws in Britain reimposed by Charles II.


First medical textbook
Microbes observed by A. van Leeuwenhoek.
Leibnitz's multiplication and division machine, a mechanical calculator
Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England established
Academy of Sciences, Moscow
Denis Papin, asst. to Robert Boyle, invents 'pressure cooker' using Boyle's Law
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz's "Stepped reckoner," device to do arithmetic calculations; defines nature and existence of ether; invents differential and integral calculus
Christiaan Huygens discovery of the polarization of light and discovers white polar caps on Mars
Van Leeuwenhoek with his primitive microscope looks at sperm and bacteria
Scarlet fever identified
Invention of the tourniquet
Cassini calculates distance between sun and Earth
Cassegrain's reflecting telescope, improvement on Newton's 1668 invention
John Mayow studies respiration and experiments with oxygen and fire
Symptoms of diabetes described
Finite velocity of light discovered by Roemer
Epidemic of sleeping sickness (encephalitis lethargica) in London; prominent symptom - hiccough

New Slang Words:

To use elbow grease


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An introduction to History by Decades by Larry Belling. More...




















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