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Events of the Decade:

British win New Amsterdam from Dutch in Second Anglo-Dutch War. Rename it New York
Brits also take Bombay
Ottoman Turks take Crete after 21-year siege
King Charles II grants charter to Rhode Island, awards lands known as Caroline to 8 members of nobility, gives large trackts of land to his brother James, Duke of York including the entire Hudson Valley and new Amsterdam
New Jersey founded
French and Germans defeat Turkish army at St. Gotthard, Hungary
K'ang-hsi Period of the Qing Dynasty begins in China
French take Canada; New France formed into province with Quebec as capital
Great fire of London destroys 13,000 houses and 97 churches including St. Pauls.
Bubonic plague epidemic in England - Black Death Black Death subsides in winter 1665 having killed 100,000.
Drought and famine in Punjab
Treaty of Dunkirk-Charles II sells Dunkirk to French
War of Devolution between France & Spain; France conquers Belgium and seizes Spanish posessions in Spanish Netherlands
Discovery of Lake Erie and the Ohio River
First of many Russo-Turkish Wars begin between Russia and Ottoman Empire but 13 year war between Russia and Poland ends; Russia gets Kiev
French capture colonies in East Indies, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Antigua, Montserrat, St. Christopher, and other islands
War between Sweden and Denmark, Sweden and Russia
Colonial Population of America: 84,800
Population of London 105,000
South Africa settled by Dutch peasants (Boers)

Who's 'In':

French King Louis XIV and his wife Maria Teresa
Infanta of Spain
Samuel Pepys (writes famous diary 1660-1669)
Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterbury
King Charles II of England, Restoration of the Stuart monarchy and his wife Catherine of Braganza
James, Duke of York
K'ang-hsi, Emperor of China
Mogul Emperor Aurungzebe in India
Explorers Louis Jolliet and Robert Cavalier de La Salle
King Charles II of Spain
Kings Charles X and XI of Sweden
Physicist Sir Isaac Newton
K'ang Hsi, baby Emperor of China
Philosopher John Locke
Court Composer Matthew Locke
Garden designer André Le Nôtre
King Frederick III of Denmark
Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I
King John II of Poland
King Alfonso VI of Portugal
Czar Aleksai I of Russia

Who Died:

80,000 in earthquake in Shemakha, Caucasia
20,000 in Mount Etna volcano eruption in Catania in Italy
100,000 in Great Plague of London
Valásquez, 61
King Charles X of Sweden
Blaise Pascal, 39
King Philip IV of Spain
Louis XIV's mom, Anne of Austria, 65
St. Vincent de Paul, 79
Shun Chih, Manchu Emperor of China
Rembrandt, 63
Gaston de France duc
Elizabeth of Bohemia, the Winter Queen
Nicholas Poussin, 72
Pope Alexander VII
Cardinal Jules Mazarin, chief minister of France
Pope Clement IX
Franz Hals, 85
Shah Jahan
Marc Antonio Cesti, 46
Jacques Sarazin, 70
England's Queen Mary I, 29
Pierre de Fermat, 63

Bad Guys:

Catholic index bans writings of Descartes
London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, first published

What's 'In':

Restoration period in England
Piracy in the Caribbean
Cultural splendor in China
Wallpaper in England
Quarterhorse racing in America
Lawn Bowling
24 public hangings per year in Restoration London
In London 3,600 prostitutes on the streets out of population of 105,000
8 passenger omnibuses in Paris
The Café Procope in Paris
Fire insurance
Cheddar cheese
A pencil factory in Germany
Water closets
In use: the hygrometer, manometer and anemometer
Isaac Newton's reflecting telescope
Hand grenades by the French army
Louis XIV style in furniture making in France; use of gilding and inlays
First Canadian University
Takanoshi family's soy sauce and seasonings in Japan
First hospital in American colonies at Long Island
Marriage in America can now legally be performed by a justice of the peace instead of a clergyman
First hard-surfaced road in America from NJ to NY
New boat in Holland - the yacht


Woman actress plays in Shakespeare for 1st time - Ms. Norris as Desdemona
Bears and bulls baiting with dogs
Theatre Royal Drury Lane, London opens
Third Folio of Shakespeare's works
1st play performed in American colonies
New theatres include galleries and private boxes; spectators no longer sit on stage; first theatre with proscenium arch in London, Christopher Wren's semi-circular Sheldonian Theatre at Oxford.
Bourla Theatre of Antwerp founded
Paris Opera Ballet founded

Pierre Corneille's "La Toison d"or"
Racine's "La Thébaïde," "Alexandre le Grand," "Andromaque," "Les Plaideurs," "Britannicus"
Molière's "Sganarelle," "L"École des Femmes," "Le Mariage Forcé," "La Princesse d"Élide," "L"Étourdi," "´Le Tartuffe," "Don Juan ou le Festin de Pierre," "Le Misanthrope," "Les Fâcheux," "L"Avare," "Amphitryon," "George Dandin," "Monsieur de Pourceaugnac"
John Dryden's "Astraea Redux," "The Rival Ladies," "Sir Martin Mar-All," "The Wild Gallant"
Sir George Etherege "She Wou'd If She Cou'd"
First play performed in America - "Ye Bare & Ye Cubb" at Acomac, Virginia


First public concerts in England
Antonio Stradivari begins making his great violins
The oboe, bassoon and French horn are developed
Cavalli's opera "Serse" and ballet opera "Ercole Amante"
Louis XIV founds Académie Royale de Danse
Henrich Schütz's "Johannes Passion" and "Christmas Oratorio"
Cesti's opera "La Dori"


John Milton's "Paradise Lost"
First bible printed in America, New Testament translated into Algonquian Indian language
Samuel Pepy's writes his diary
Baroque literature in Germany influenced by Andreas Gryphius and Hans Grimmelshausen (author of "Simplicissimus")
Stephen Blake's "The Compleat Gardeners Practices"
Nils Steensen's "Prodromus"


Rembrandt's "St. Peters" Denial," "Family Portrait, "Board of the Clothmakers" Guild," "The Return of the Prodigal Son" "The Syndics of the Cloth Hall" "The Jewish Bride," "Old Woman Cutting Her Nails," "Apostle Paul (self-portrait)"
Jan Vermeer's "Girl with a Pearl Earring," "Young Woman with a Water Jug," "Lady Weighing gold," "Girl with a Flute," "Girl with a Red Hat," "Head of a Girl," "The Lace Maker," "Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid" "The Cook" "The Lacemaker" "The Artist's Studio" "Girl at the Spinet," Raising of the Cross," "Zeuxis," and "The Art of Painting."
Jan Steen's "Skittle Players Outside an Inn," "Morning Toilet," "Merry Company," "Dissolute Life," "The World Upside Down," "Feats of St. Nicholas Day" "Easy Come, Easy Go" "the Christening Feast," "The Drawing Lesson"
Poussin's "The Four Seasons," "Apollo and Daphne"
Murillo - "Rest on the Flight into Egypt"; founds Seville Academy
Bernini's bust of Louis XIV and terra cotta study for angel overlooking Port Santa Angelo in Rome
Meindert Hobbema's "The Avenue of Middleharnis"
"Windmill at Wijk" by Jacob van Ruisdael
Zenith of Dutch marine paintings including Ludolph Backhuysen's "Ships in Distress of Rocky Coast"
Sir Peter Lely's portrait of Barbara Villiers, mistress to King Charles II

Fashion & Beauty:

Coiled hair, curls over ears
Pearls in hair
Brooches and bracelets
Lace caps and hoods
Embroidered hems
Depilatories: cat dung mixed with vinegar
Beauty lotion: puppydog water made with wine and roast puppy

Long hair
Tall, wide-brimmed hats and feathered hats
Breeches gathered at the knee
"petticoat breeches" all open with no sewing up between legs
Short doublets
Mules with gold and silver trim
Ribbons on sleeves and waist
Baldric for sword on shoulder belt
Waistcoat with open coat
Cravates or neckties originating in France and England

English law that mourning clothes had to be made of English wool and people had to be buried in wool


London Gazette first published
First scheduled newspapers in Germany and England
Earliest French magazine: "Journal des Savants"
Earliest English magazine: Philosophical Transactions published by Royal Society of London
First Italian magazine: Giornale de"letterati


First paper money in Europe - Swedish Dalers - issued at Stockholm
Paper money issued in England - Samuel Pepys makes payment to father with a banknote
First gold guinea pieces coined in England
Last silver pennies minted in London
22 million franc deficit in French revenue
Cooks wages per year £4. General maid £3
Price of baronetcy £1,095
Hackney cab license £5 for life. Rates 18 pence 1st hour, 12 pence thereafter with daily maximum of 10 shillings
Price of slave from Royal African Company: £20
Price of roast beef dinner for four at inn: five shillings


First Bible printed in America translated into Algonquian language
Quakers hold first meeting in Rhode Island
Charles II bans hanging of Quakers on Boston Common
First Sunday School in America at Plymouth, MA
Christmas celebrations prohibited in Massachusetts
Anti-Catholic activity in Britain with "Popish Plot"
(Note secret conversion of King Charles II to Catholicism!)
Stuart monarchy restoration drives Baptists into hiding; John Bunyan, Baptist minister, imprisoned
Pope Clement IX
"Book of Common Prayer" adopted
First church for Indians in America in New England
Trappist Order founded at Normandy
Jews in Barbados forbidden to trade with others


Isaac Newton's experiments with gravity forming law of universal gravitation; he invents differential calculus and the reflecting telescope; measures the moon's orbit; discovers binomial theorem at Cambridge
National Observatory, Paris, Académie Royal des Sciencess, and London Royal Societies founded
Modern study of geology begun
Dying Charles II underwent bleeding, enemas, cantharides on scalp and red hot irons on feet
Blood transfusions
Rotations of Jupiter, Mars and Venus observed
Boyle's experiments proving air is needed for life to exist; formulates Boyle's Law of pressure and volume of gases
Malpighi's discovery of capillary circulation, skin layers, lymph nodes and brain cells; he uses a microscope!
First artificial respiration performed
Robert Hooke draws first cells and names them
Phosphorus discovered by Hennig Brand
The heart first recognized as a muscle
Red corpuscles identified by Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Redi's experiments to prove that insects need eggs to reproduce

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