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Events of the Decade:

Rebuilding after 30 years war ended in 1648
New Amsterdam (now New York) incorporated
Qing Dynasty begins in China (1644)
Peace in England after bloody 9 year civil war ends; but then War between England and Holland 2 years
Ottomans are in a state of anarchy
Dutch East India Company founds Capetown (Dap Town); has holdings in Indonesia, Ceylon, West Indies and North America
Spanish ascendancy in Europe ends; French win Spanish territories
English beat Scots at Battle of Dunbar
Iroquois Indians in U.S. victorious over Hurons and Eries
First Northern war between Sweden and Poland
English Admiral Robert Black destroys Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay
Colonial population of the U.S.: 51,700
French beat Spanish at Battle of Dunes (Dunkirk)
Battle of Warsaw

Who's 'In':

Following the House of Stuart in Britain is the Commonwealth and Protectorate with Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector and Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector
King Louis XIV of France
Charles II (Stuart), King of Scotland
New Amsterdam Governor Peter Stuyvesant
Yetuna, shogun of Japan
Shah Jahan, Mogul emperor of India
Jan van Riebeeck of the Dutch East India Co.
Architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Czar Alexis of Russia
Alfonso VI of Portugal
John IV of Portugal
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
King Philip IV of Spain
Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans
Moliere becomes patron of Louis XIV
King Frederick III of Denmark
King John II of Poland
Queen Christina of Sweden
King Charles X of Sweden

Who Died:

400,000 in Plague spreading from Sardinia to Naples
Archbishop James Ussher of Ireland, 75
Inigo Jones, 79
Cyrano de Bergerac, 36
Admiral Robert Blake, 58
René Descartes, 54
Oliver Cromwell, 59
Saint Peter Claver, 74
Myles Standish, 72
William II, Prince of Orange, 24
King John IV of Portugal, 53
Pope Innocent X, 81
Abel Tasman, 56

Bad Guys:

King Charles I of England

What's 'In':

Tobacco except in Bavaria, Saxony, & Ottoman Empire
Piazza of St. Peters in Rome
Wine first made in South Africa
The minuet at the French court
Torricelli's barometer
Letter boxes in Paris
Pounds for animals
First toll bridge in Colonies in Massachusetts
First coffee houses in England
Tea first drunk in England
Hackney coaches in Paris
Leather upholstery on furniture
Stone pavement laid in NY
Cyrano de Bergerac's theory that a rocket could carry man to moon
First traffic laws in NY
Flintlock guns
Turkish carpets placed on tabletops, not on the floor
Hot chocolate in London
Pictures in students" textbooks
Wool production
Teachers required by Massachusetts for each town of 50 families or more
First fire engines
Tennis and golf (called Kolven) in America
The Taj Mahal at Agra, India
Christiaan Huygens" pendulum clock (grandfather clock) and chronometer for sea travel
Air pump and balance spring invented
Furniture making in America, especially alcove beds


Development of Japanese Noh drama
First public "Comedy House" in Vienna
Pedro Calderón's "El Médico de su Honra"
Molière's "Le Dépit Amoureux," "Les Précieuses Ridicules" "L"Etourdi,"
Thomas Corneille "Timocrate," "Andromède,"
"Nicomède," "Oedipe"
William Rowley "The Witch of Edmonton"
John Dryden's "The Indian Emperor"
George Chapman "Revenge for Honour"
James Shirley "The Gentleman of Venice"
Thomas Middleton "No Wit Like a Woman"
Philip Massinger "The City Madam"


The overture developed
The Koto becomes national instrument of Japan
Viols are out, violins are "in"
Harmony and modulation theories.
First Opera Houses in Vienna and London
Matthew Locke's "Cupid and Death," "The Siege of Rhodes"
Johann Caspar von Keril's opera "Applausi Festivi" in Munich
Francesco Cavalli's opera "La Calisto" based on Ovid's "Metamorphoses" had text by Giovanni Faustini
The minuet is "in" in the courts of France


Poet Anne Bradstreet - New England's first published poet- "The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America"
John Milton's "Eikonoklastes," "Defensio Secunda"
Revival of German literature after 30 Years War
Andrew Marvel's poems on nature
Thomas Hobbes political tract "Leviathan"
First children's books inc. the encyclopedic "Orbis Sensualium Pictus," (A Nomenclature of All the Chief Things in the World") in Latin with pictures.
John Cleveland "Poems"
Izaak Walton's "The Complete Angler"
"L"École des Filles" ("The Girl's School") first pornographic novel in France


Nicholas Poussin "Self- Portrait," "Four Seasons"
Bernini's sculpture "The Ecstasy of St. Theresa"
Valázaquez" "The Toilet of Venus," "Infant Margarita in a Pink Dress," "The Maids of Honor," "The Fable of Arachne," "Mercury and Argos," "Prince Felipe Prospero" "Las Meninas" "Las Hilanderas" "Infant Philip Prosper," "Infanta Maria Teresa," and "Juan de Pareja."
Rembrandt's "The Man with the Golden Helmet," "Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer," "Woman Bathing," "Bathsheba," "The Flayed Ox," "Portrait of a Man Holding a Manuscript," "Girl with a Broom" "Portrait of Hendrickje," "Portrait of Jan Six" "Portrait of his son Titus," portrait of Muhammed Adil Shah of Bijapur, "Polish Rider," "Jupiter and Antiope"
Peter Lely's "Oliver Cromwell"
Jan Vermeer's "Officer and Laughing Girl," "The Procuress" "Young Girl with Flute," "Saint Praxedis," "The Little Street"
Claude Lorrain "Pastoral Landscape"
Murillo's "Immaculate Conception," "St. Leandro," "St. Isidoro," "Vision of St. Anthony," "The Holy Family with the Little Bird" and self-portrait
Jan van Goyen's "View of Dordrecht," "View of the Rhine"
Teniers" "Village Feast"
Jan Baptist Weenix's "Mother and Child in an Italian Landscape"
Michael Sweerts' "Plague in an Ancient City"
Jacob van Loo's "An allegory of Venus and Cupid as Lady World and Homo Bulla"

Bernini's Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (Fountain of Four Rivers) in Rome's Piaza Navona.
Shah Jahan completes the Taj Mahal after 22 years

Fashion & Beauty:

Long curly wigs over long hair
High-heeled boots
Jackboots of stiff leather with "bucket" tops (3 Musketeers style)
Pale blue hose
Black shoes with gold ribbons
Coast and vests
Laws passed in Massachusetts forbidding the poor to adopt fancy dress styles

Silk hoods and scarves considered snobby in America
Hair ribbons
Bodices, wrist ruffles
Elaborate lace collars
Turn-back sleeves
Lace caps under wide-brimmed hats
First stockings in Paris

Laws against the poor adopting "excessive" styles of dress in Massachusetts
Artificial pearls first made by M. Jacquin in Paris


Courant newspaper in Netherlands, oldest surviving commercial newspaper


First mint in America established in Boston - first coinage: silver sixpence, threepence and shillings; mintmaster was John Hull
Willowtree pattern on Colonial coins adopted to curb counterfeiting
First bank notes issued by Swedish State Bank
Free enterprise in England
First British cheques
Cuban millionaire rich from robbing Caribbean pirates deposits $60 million in gold in London bank at 5% interest - Andres Manso de Contreras.


Quakers founded in Britain by George Fox; first Quakers arrive in Boston-imprisoned
First Jews arrive in US; win citizenship; first Jewish congregation of Shearith Israel, N.Y.
Jews flee Spanish Inquisition
Oliver Cromwell allows Jews back into England
Gelupga school of the Dalai Lamas becomes Tibet's most powerful group
Pope Innocent X
Pope Alexander VII
Strict laws against having fun or recreation on Sundays in the Colonies
Law in Boston fines Christmas observers five shillings
Archbishop James Ussher writes "Annales Veteris et Novi Testamenti" giving beginning of world as 4004 BC.
Reform Protestant Dutch Church incorporated in 1654 in Brooklyn, NY.
Mother St. John Fontbonne founds the Sisters of St. Joseph
Jews banned from military service in New Amsterstam
Jews massacred in Lublin, Poland
Anglicans banned by English Lord Protector Cromwell
Universal suffrage in Virginia regardless of religion
Connecticut passes law against Quakers
No tennis playing during religious services says Peter Stuyvesant


Copernican system, sun at center of earth, accepted by Harvard College
Rickets and typhoid fever first described
Quinine first appears in Europe to treat what must have been malaria
First "hospital" in Colonies set up in New Amsterdam
Cataracts caused by lens clouding surmised
Red corpuscles discovered by Jan Swammerdam
Chemist Johann Schröder discovers Arsenic
Pascal and Fermat issued "theory of probability" in mathematics - worked out outcomes in game of dice
Division sign (÷) introduced in math
Giovanni Riccioli's map of the moon
Thomas Wharton's experiments into the anatomy of glands
Accademia del Cimento, scientific research institute in Florence
Samuel Stockhausen identifies ailment of Huttenkatze as lead poisoning
Kepler's version of Copernican theory confirmed by Sassini's observatory
First autopsy and coroner's jury verdic in state of Maryland

New Slang Words:

To burn the midnight oil
Someone is a chip off the old block
A dog's life
Fair and square
To fall from grace
To fight tooth and nail
As I live and breathe
Grub (food)
To drink like a fish


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